Primary Functions of Protein in the Body
Proteins are part of so-called immediate early, those organic substances which are the functional basis of living beings; and described their function in capital letters, it is so generic as to allow the existence of life on Earth, something that obviously serves the purpose of this article
Proteins are essential to life
The understanding complex intervention of proteins in the human body requires a brief summary introduction about their biochemical profile as composed of long chains of monomeric substances known as macromolecular compounds Amino acids, whose chemical and physical properties dependent protein functional capacity.
In full are twenty amino acids in nature, of which nine have provided essential, which means that the body does not have the genetic programming required for their synthesis and therefore must be ingested necessarily through food.
Before it should remember the importance of these substances in the overall chemical composition of the human body, accounting for about 20% by weight, as a result of their ubiquity in tissues and systems.
What are the functions of proteins?
Roughly: proteins are responsible for configuring the shape and cellular structure and captaining virtually all biochemical reactions that determine human metabolism.
We can break down his speech as follows:
Proteins are key constituents of the immune system, like antibodies or immunoglobulin molecules responsible for neutralizing antigens invading the organism in a varied repertoire of processes and locations, chemically are specifically specialized proteins recognize and disprove its pathogenic capacity molecules causing, among other effects, infections and intoxications. Specifically, it is a protein and combinations of a carbohydrate constituting glycoproteins.
Accompanying this task without strictly immunological properties but a defensive barrier, known as mucins, acting coating epithelial mucosa providing a bactericidal effect, as well as fibrinogen and thrombin, responsible for blood coagulation as necessary in the avoidance hemorrhages.
Proteins are essential for maintaining the cell membrane
The architecture of the human organism as a cohesive set of cells, tissues, organs, and systems is possible by protein action. At the base of the pyramid structure, cell membranes are lattices of proteins and lipids that make the existence of cells with single recognizable anatomy.
Processes restoring damaged or have suffered a loss of substance, such as wound healing, tissue the bone callus formation in the repair of bone or regeneration of muscle after tearing of myofibrils are possible mediation proteins.
Various tissues widely distributed in human anatomy have a certain protein as an essential chemical constituent; It is the case of keratin in hair and nails, actin/myosin muscle, connective tissue collagen, and cartilage, reticulin subcutaneous tissue, etc.
One of the main properties of proteins is their plastic function: regeneration of muscle tissue
It is perhaps the most extensive plot in protein functionality, it expresses a multiplicity of biochemical processes that are actually digestion, respiration, gas exchange, the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus, iron transport involved, mitosis and cell meiosis, the use of energy by the cells and an endless catalog of vital processes featuring two types of proteins functionally identified as enzymes and hormones.
Enzymatic protein function is more specialized and numerous. Develop work biocatalysts activating interactions between different substances called produce energy or synthesize a metabolite accelerating chemical reactions of metabolism. A good example of these would amylase in degrading starch specialized ingested plants to release glucose molecules, the simplest carbon hydrate can be assimilated as an energy source by the cells. Recent scientific data show that the abundance and effectiveness of enzymes in the body are critical for the normal development of life factors.
The hormones, meanwhile, are proteins secreted by endocrine glands whose cells are being released directly into the bloodstream to target specific receptors located in turn in the membranes of other cells. Somehow are chemical modulators for transferring signals that determine a certain metabolic action. An excellent example is an insulin, secreted by the pancreas to facilitate access of glucose to the cell cytoplasm hormone.
Proteins perform mechanical functions in turn transport carrying nutrients to cells. Such is the case of hemoglobin, responsible for transporting oxygen released in the pulmonary arteries breathing to peripheral, or myoglobin tissue, which does the same recovering hemoglobin oxygen to supply muscle tissue. This transport of substances, proteins involved not only as traffic elements but some of them, mainly on the type of glycoproteins, are integrated into cell membranes to act as specific receptors for a particular substance.
And within this regulatory aspect, it is noted finally called homeostatic function, consisting preserve the balance in various liquid media agencies, such as the pH-buffering and maintenance of osmotic balance and electrolytic intercellular liquid.
Proteins are also responsible for maintaining the genetic code, to support the role of DNA and RNA
It is considered the less relevant because for that need the body intends the use of lipids and carbohydrates. However, in times of energy crisis by malnutrition, the body can get 4 kilocalories of energy per gram of protein, which is an alternative and undesirable metabolic pathway since it creates an organic weakening due to the consumption of endogenous proteins. However, it is a remarkable role that some proteins, usually with phosphate groups such as ATP as energy reservoirs
All these functions have their starting point in the absorption of amino acids in the small intestine after fractionation of proteins ingested in the stomach and duodenum in previous sections. Villous behave like a filter that amino acid molecules reach the circulatory system where they will be scattered by cells that demand the synthesis of various types of specific proteins.