Sports During Pregnancy: When, Why, Contraindications
“I’m pregnant, not sick”. It is the phrase that we hear from many sports and passionate women who are pregnant. So that’s it. If you are pregnant you must not stop doing sport, and of course always when pregnancy is not a risk and you have previously passed by the doctor to get the nod.
If your pregnancy is normal and has no risk, Go!
- 1 Is it good to play sports during pregnancy?
- 2 Why do sports during pregnancy?
- 3 Can you do any exercise while pregnant?
- 4 How does it affect the fetus’s exercise?
- 5 Physiological changes during pregnancy
- 6 Contraindications to exercise during pregnancy
- 7 Guidelines for exercise during pregnancy
- 8 CrossFit and Pregnancy
Is it good to play sports during pregnancy?
Physical exercise improves the cardiovascular and muscular condition, thus favoring postural correction and avoiding excessive weight gain, which provides pregnant better physical general condition and allows you to cope with pregnancy and birth with less risk. On the other hand increases the psychological well-being by reducing anxiety, increasing self-esteem, reduces insomnia, improves blood pressure and protects against possible gestational diabetes.
Two important pathologies can greatly be mitigated by the practice of exercise during pregnancy: Preeclampsia (pregnancy-induced hypertension) and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (diagnosis first pregnancy)
Women who exercised regularly before pregnancy can continue to perform physical activity sessions properly tightened (as there are no complications) thus keeping your cardiovascular and muscular fitness during pregnancy and after childbirth.
Why do sports during pregnancy?
The reasons to practice or continue during pregnancy respond directly to improve the health status of the mother, in the sense of reducing the risk of pregnancy-associated disease. Thus, in the case of preeclampsia (pregnancy-induced hypertension), it may be reduced thanks to the physiological and psychological benefits associated with regular physical activity. Also, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and glucose metabolism can be improved by increasing glucose tolerance and decreasing the chances of developing gestational diabetes mellitus.
Training may include the prevention or treatment of other conditions such as low back pain, urinary incontinence associated with pregnancy, muscular pelvic floor dysfunction and/or musculoskeletal diseases.
Can you do any exercise while pregnant?
You have to be careful with certain exercises because the center of gravity changes as well as being greater weight-bearing. That’s why you should avoid balancing exercises or static positions for long periods. Sudden changes in position and avoid contact sports. All this to prevent falls and trauma (especially when the pregnancy is advanced).
How does it affect the fetus’s exercise?
According to some research, the weight of babies at birth from mothers who have practiced exercise at high intensity is lower, around about 300-350g less. The main reason may be due to the lower amount of subcutaneous fat of the newborn. From here you can extract the recommendation of more moderate exercise. On the other hand, intense exercise during pregnancy is associated with increased 5-15 beats/minute in the fetal heart rate but without appearing adverse effects on the fetus.
Premature births: for most healthy pregnant women without additional risk factors for preterm birth, exercise does not increase the normal activity of the uterus or the incidence of contractions or premature births
Physiological changes during pregnancy
Because of the number of processes and changes that take place in the body of the pregnant woman, have to follow carefully a series of recommendations and take them into account:
Pregnancy alters the relationship between heart rate and oxygen consumption, and that is why exercise should be considered. Thus, women aged 20-29 years, the FC should be between 135-150 beats/min, while about 130-145 30-39. Quite another recommended way is to use the scale of perceived exertion (IEP) and determine the intensity. Generally, it should be between 12-14, which would amount to a conversation during exercise.
Ventilation may increase by up to 50%, so that is used between 10-20% oxygen at rest. Thus, there will be less oxygen for physical activity. As pregnancy progresses and the uterus grows in size, it interferes with the movement of the diaphragm, and in turn increases respiratory effort, reducing the maximum exercise performance. It is important at this point, correctly adjust the exercise program to avoid making high levels of fatigue or physical exhaustion reach.
The center of mass of women varies as your weight increases, and the size of the breast and uterus, so it can adversely affect your balance, postural control and movement mechanics in certain exercises. Thus, we must be careful enough when selecting exercises involving this variable maintaining balance and prevent falls or trauma to the abdomen. Given the laxity that occurs during pregnancy, exercises should be performed slowly and in a controlled manner to prevent joint damage.
The need for more oxygen is due to the need for greater energy substrate. In general, pregnant women often need an additional 300kcals around to meet the metabolic needs for homeostasis of its vital functions, now increased. During exercise, pregnant women use more amount of carbohydrates.
Pregnancy raises the basal metabolic rate temperature and heat production, increase further during exercise. This effect is of a greater extent during the first trimester of pregnancy. It is, therefore, to be ensured proper heat dissipation by adequate hydration, appropriate clothing, and an optimum ambient environment.
After the First Quarter
Avoid being lying face up (supine) since it impedes venous return to the heart due to the increasing size of the uterus. Also, this position reduces cardiac output and can cause supine hypotension syndrome. This would be necessary to remove any exercise you perform in that position: sit-ups, bench press, supine on stability ball exercises and stretching on the floor.
It should perform stress the strength of the abdominal and pelvic floor, as these muscles form the basis of postural support and prepare women for childbirth. Therein, strengthening the transverses abdominal (the deepest abdominal muscle) helps support the spine and help at the time of delivery to the push back.
How to strengthen the transverses abdominal?
Releasing a deep breath through the mouth while the abdomen is compressed. Imagine that we must shorten the distance between the navel and the column tummy tucked inward.
Kegel exercises are indicated to strengthen the pelvic floor. In these exercises, tensing and muscle groups relax the pelvic region. The training will help to ensure that women can control the well, and so the baby can be born more easily.
Abdominal exercises down the trunk while protecting the abdomen with arms slightly. Abdominal exercises also “crawl” or lying sideways. Sitting strength exercises to work the lower and upper body.
Contraindications to exercise during pregnancy
If any of the following is suffering, exercise can be an absolute contraindication:
- premature contractions
- persistent bleeding past 12 weeks
- premature dilation of the cervix
- heart disease
- Multiple pregnancies
If you suffer from some list corresponds to the doctor give prior valuation at the beginning of the year
- Diabetes type 1
- low body weight
- sedentary lifestyle
- severe anemia
- orthopedic limitations
Symptoms to stop exercise during pregnancy
If any of the following conditions are manifested during pregnancy I spend, you should stop immediately and seek medical advice
- Discharge of blood from the vagina
- Dyspnea before exercise
- Unexplained headaches
- Chest pain
- Pain and swelling in the calves
- premature contractions
- Decreased mobility of the fetus
- Loss of amniotic fluid
Guidelines for exercise during pregnancy
- We recommend a minimum of 15 minutes of daily physical activity of moderate intensity, and at least 3 days a week. Gradually increase to reach 30 minutes a day.
- They should encourage rhythmic and dynamic activities, like pedaling a stationary bicycle or walking
- Avoid any activity with risk of abdominal trauma (however slight) or the balance is lost
- During strength training opt for machines instead of free weights to increase stability
- Avoid the Valsalva maneuver (holding your breath during exertion). Recommendation: exhaling in the lifting phase (effort) in each repeat
- Activities to avoid: football, basketball, horse riding, scuba diving, skating, biking or plyometrics
- After three quarters avoid supine position (face up)
CrossFit and Pregnancy
Today the sport of CrossFit is well-known, and knowing your requirement, Can pregnant women can continue practicing? A few years ago, several expectant mothers, coaching CrossFit, decided to continue the pace of starting her pregnancy. Attending professional recommendations, and taking care at each stage of pregnancy with other exercises that could be performed, everything went quite normally. You can see the rest in the following video: